ROMANIAN WHEAT – STRATEGIC PRODUCT FOR NATIONAL ECONOMY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series A. Agonomy., Vol. LVI
Written by Gheorghe Valentin ROMAN, Adrian Cristinel NIŢU, Nastasia BELC, Enuţa IORGA, Iulia NIŢU, Lenuţa Iuliana EPURE

Wheat has always been an agricultural crop and a product of the greatest importance to human existence and activity. It is a component of the field crops assortment in Romanian agriculture, an important source of income for farms and rural households, whose harvest is used as raw material in the milling and baking industry, but also represents an important article for domestic and international trade. Wheat fits well with agricultural vocation of Romania and should be considered a strategic product for the national economy, for reasons that require special attention on the productive potential, but especially on crop quality. Wheat is grown in average on about 2,100 thou ha per year and produces over 5,500 thou tones on average and over 7,000 thou tons in good years, which covered the requirements for domestic consumption and are designed, as a rule, for export availability too. Assortment of wheat varieties grown in Romania includes over 100 varieties, Romanian creations and imported. Romanian varieties sown areas represent about 70% of the total wheat grown areas. Based on these considerations, based on the initiative of central agricultural authorities, the National Institute of Research&Development for Food Bio-Resources, in collaboration with regional agricultural institutions organized a nationwide study on the quality of wheat grains produced in Romania. For more than 10 years were analyzed the wheat quality, for each variety, county, geographical area and agricultural year and the evolution of the grown varieties. Based on these results, we found that the physical-chemical quality of the harvest of wheat produced in Romania, especially in West Plain, in Oltenia Plain and South Plain and Dobrudja, meets the requirements for the assessment category very good for the bakery, including the terms contents in proteins and wet gluten. On the other hand, the quality of the wheat crop was affected, in some small areas of cultivation and only in certain years, grain buds attack, the significant presence of sprouted grains, harmful or toxic seeds, and, quite seldom , the ergot.

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ROMAN G. V., NIŢU A. C., BELC N., IORGA E., NIŢU I., EPURE L. I. 2013, ROMANIAN WHEAT – STRATEGIC PRODUCT FOR NATIONAL ECONOMY. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agonomy., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5785, 337-343.


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