ISSN 2285-5785, ISSN CD-ROM 2285-5793, ISSN ONLINE 2285-5807, ISSN-L 2285-5785


Published in Scientific Papers. Series A. Agonomy., Vol. LVI
Written by Andreea COSOVEANU, Raimundo CABRERA, Cristina GIMÉNEZ MARIÑO, Beatrice Michaela IACOMI, Azucena GONZÁLEZ-COLOMA

The bio pesticide market is currently expanding in Western Europe and North America. The European market represents a 45% of the total demand, and its importance is shown by the priority given by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Union. Due to environmental side effects and health concerns, many synthetic pesticides have been banned (Council Directive 91/414 EC) or are being under evaluation (Regulation 2009/1107/E and Directive 2009/128/EC). Regarding plant protection, natural extracts represent one of the greatest perspectives. Their impact is efficient, the extraction procedures are not complicated, are safe for environment and people and the degrading process is fast. Therefore, there are already on the market natural fungicides like thyme oil, Thymus zygis (Bio 75®), cinnamon oil (Cinnacoda®), extract of citric seeds (Zytroseed®), extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis, the giant knotweed (Milsana®). An interesting way of searching for bio pesticides, including fungicides is screening naturally occurring compounds in plants. In our study, the antifungal potential of 16 extracts (essential oil, hidrolate, dry ethanolic extract) from various species of Artemisia, Laurus, Argyranthemum, Persea, Euphorbia was investigated in vitro against important pre-and postharvest pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. solani, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium expansum. The activity of Artemisiaabsinthium essential oil (from stem and leaves) was assesed in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruits with P. expansum. Our results indicated that the extracts have a variable degree of antifungal activity, depending on plant species, type of extract, fungal isolate and concentration. The present study highlights the fungicidal potential of various extracts from Artemisia species and Argyranthemum frutescens. Extracts from Laurus azorica, Persea indica and Euphorbia azorica did not inhibit mycelial growth. The in vivo test confirmed the high efficacy showed in vitro by Artemisia absinthium essential oil, which was verry effective in controlling disease severity of infected apple fruits by P. expansum. Further studies are in progress to confirm the in vivo efficacy of extracts on different fruits and vegetables.

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