Study regarding useful fauna on corn plants
Published in Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy, Vol. LV-2012
Written by Diana COMAN
A large number of insects are living in the maize agroecosystem, being a species community and each species has a particular place in the food chains. If a lot of studies were done, in Romania about biology, ecology and control of corn insect pest, there are few knowledge about useful fauna or “non target organisms” [non target organism = an organism which is affected by an interaction (for example, a pesticide application) for which it was not the intended recipient]. Beneficial organisms include various insects and mites that feed on or parasitize corn pest species. During 2010-2011 there where counted arthropod fauna from corn plants, taking into consideration “transgenic” corn hybrids and conventional Romanian hybrids. Foliar non-target arthropod abundance was assessed using visual counting. Variants were in 4 replications, each corn plot had 4 rows and plot’s area was 20.3 m2. Arthropods collected during animal visual counting on corn plants, for identification, were preserved in 700 alcohols and determined in the laboratory. Taking into consideration that not all specimens have been determined at species level, part of them were determined till the level of the genus, family, order or class. Possible impact of pesticide and GMOs crops on the trophic chains in agrocoenoses is of concern to farmers, to policy makers and to organizations and societies interested in environment conservation. The evaluation of hazards connected with the creation and release of GMOs should consider, among other things, their environmental impact. In terms of main species of arthropods captured, that are living on corn plants, the most abundant groups of insects belong to species of order Heteroptera, Coleoptera-Coccinellidae, Neuroptera and to spiders from arachnids. Between cultivars taken into consideration there are no significant differences from point of view of species structure or number of specimens on corn plants.